Ruth Gallaid from Eugene, Or. Five years later, Humphry founds the Hemlock Society, the first right-to-die organization in the U.
Supreme Court ruled in the case of Nancy Beth Cruzan.
The issue in both cases concerned whether the parents of these two women, who were both in a persistent vegetative state PVScould withdraw life-sustaining treatment when their daughters' preferences were unknown. Quinlan's treatment was a ventilator; and Cruzan's a feeding tube.
The courts ultimately ruled the life-sustaining treatment could be withdrawn, although each court required a different process for doing so.
It is these two court decisions that are considered America's landmark right-todie cases. In Quinlan, who was twenty-one, suffered a respiratory arrest that resulted in a PVS. After it became evident that she would never recover, her parents decided to take her off the ventilator; however, the hospital and medical staff refused their request.
Her parents asked the courts to grant them the power to authorize the ventilator's withdrawal.
Almost a year later the New Jersey Supreme Court held that the state's interest in protecting Quinlan's life was outweighed by her right of privacygiven her poor prognosis and the invasion of her body that would be necessary to keep her alive.
In twenty-five-year-old Cruzan was found lying in a ditch after a car accident. This too resulted in a PVS, but without the need of a ventilator. As with the Quinlans, Cruzan's parents came to accept the fact that she would never recover.
With this realization they asked her health care providers to withdraw her feeding tube; their request was also refused. The legal odyssey that ensued ended at the U.
The Supreme Court upheld the Missouri Supreme Court, which required "clear and convincing" evidence that Cruzan would forgo artificial nutrition and hydration given her current state before her parents could remove the feeding tube.
After the Supreme Court's decision was handed down several of Cruzan's friends came forward with recollections of statements she had made regarding patients who were in similar circumstances to hers.
They said Cruzan had stated she would never want to live like that. These friends gave her parents the "clear and convincing" evidence they needed to have the feeding tube withdrawn. The PSDA went into effect on December 1,and requires all hospitals, nursing homes, hospices, and health maintenance organizations HMOs to provide patients with information on advance directives.
The PSDA also requires these organizations to provide educational programs to their staff and community on advance directives. An advance directive is a legal document that allows adults to state their preferences for end-of-life treatment.
There are typically two kinds of advance directives: The first is a living willwhich allows adults to state what treatments they would or would not want at the end-of-life such as cardiopulmonary resuscitationa ventilator, or antibiotics. The second kind is a Durable Power of Attorney for Healthcare, which allows an adult to appoint someone, such as a friend or family member, to make health care decisions for him or her should he or she lose decision-making ability.
It is through an advance directive that patients can meet the "clear and convincing" evidence standard as required by some states, such as Missouri. However, advance directives are of little help to endof-life patients who are not dependent on life-sustaining treatment.Essay on WHAT IS THE RIGHT-TO-DIE MOVEMENT?
Words | 6 Pages. Questions arise concerning the social, religious and ethical factors that have to be taken into play while considering end-of-life or right-to-die and thus bringing complexity to .
Right to die - Social Movements. Essay by jessicaseabrook, April download word file, 2 pages, Downloaded 89 times. Keywords United States, Death, Euthanasia, bodies, United States Supreme Court. 0 Like 0 Tweet. Discuss the "right to die" debate.
How has modern technology created this debate in the first place? Read this Miscellaneous Essay and over 88, other research documents.
Right to Die. The Right to Die Assisted Suicide TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Table of contents 2 Introduction 3 Purpose 4 Research Question /5(1).
Right to die - Social Movements. Essay by jessicaseabrook, April download word file, 2 pages, Downloaded 89 times. Keywords United States, Death, Euthanasia, bodies, United States Supreme Court.
0 Like 0 Tweet. Discuss the "right to die" debate. How has modern technology created this debate in the first place? The Right To Die Philosophy Essay. Print Reference this Physician assisted suicide and Euthanasia are the movements associated with the right to die. Christopher Docker defines physician assisted suicide as, ” the provision by a doctor, consciously and legally, to a patient who has completely requested it, of the means for that.
This essay provides information Social Movement! Conventionally, social movements have broadly been perceived as organised efforts to bring about changes in the thought, beliefs, values, attitudes, relationships and major institutions in society, or to resist changes in any of the above structural elements of society.