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Introduction In general, metacognition is thinking about thinking.
If students are aware of how committed or uncommitted they are to reaching goals, of how strong or weak is their disposition to persist, and of how focused or wandering is their attention to a thinking or writing task, they can regulate their commitment, disposition, and attention Marzano et al.
For example, if students were aware of a lack of commitment to writing a long research assignment, noticed that they were procrastinating, and were aware that they were distracted by more appealing ways to spend their time, they could then take action to get started on the assignment. But until they are aware of their procrastination and take control by making a plan for doing the assignment, they will blissfully continue to neglect the assignment.
Metacognition and Three Types of Knowledge To increase their metacognitive abilities, students need to possess and be aware of three kinds of content knowledge: Declarative knowledge is the factual information that one knows; it can be declared—spoken or written.
Procedural knowledge is knowledge of how to do something, of how to perform the steps in a process; for example, knowing the mass of an object and its rate of speed and how to do the calculation.
Conditional knowledge is knowledge about when to use a procedure, skill, or strategy and when not to use it; why a procedure works and under what conditions; and why one procedure is better than another. For example, students need to recognize that an exam word problem requires the calculation of momentum as part of its solution.
This notion of three kinds of knowledge applies to learning strategies as well as course content. When they study, students need the declarative knowledge that 1 all reading assignments are not alike; for example, that a history textbook chapter with factual information differs from a primary historical document, which is different from an article interpreting or analyzing that document.
They need to know that stories and novels differ from arguments. Furthermore they need to know that there are different kinds of note taking strategies useful for annotating these different types of texts.
And 2 students need to know how to actually write different kinds of notes procedural knowledgeand 3 they need to know when to apply these kinds of notes when they study conditional knowledge. Knowledge of study strategies is among the kinds of metacognitive knowledge, and it too requires awareness of all three kinds of knowledge.
Metacognition and Study Strategies Research shows that explicitly teaching study strategies in content courses improves learning. Rote memorization is the usual learning strategy—and often the only strategy—employed by high school students when they go to college Nist, But students who have learned only the strategy of reading to pass a quiz on the information will not go beyond this strategy.
Students need to know they have choices about which strategies to employ in different contexts. And students who learn study skills in one course need to apply study strategies in other contexts than where they first learned it.
Students need to monitor their application of study strategies. Metacognitive awareness of their learning processes is as important as their monitoring of their learning of the course content.
Monitoring Problems with Learning When students monitor their learning, they can become aware of potential problems. Nickerson, Perkins, and Smith in The Teaching of Thinking have categorized several types of problems with learning.
Edit Article How to Write an Executive Summary. In this Article: Article Summary The Basics The Specifics Summary Help and Sample Summary Community Q&A The executive summary is the most important part of a business document. It is the first (and sometimes the only) thing others will read and the last thing you should write. The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue. The process of publishing academic articles is similar, except scientific publishers manage to cut out most of the publishing costs. As such, their profit margins are significantly higher than.
Problems with Process; Making errors in encoding, operations, and goals: Errors in Encoding Missing important data or not separating relevant from irrelevant data.The process of publishing academic articles is similar, except scientific publishers manage to cut out most of the publishing costs.
As such, their profit margins are significantly higher than.
Dec 08, · Three Parts: Preparing to Write Your Review Writing the Article Review Sample Article Reviews Community Q&A An article review is both a summary and an evaluation of another writer's article.
Teachers often assign article reviews to introduce students to the work of experts in the field%(). An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse". It . The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
Begin your essay with a summary of the article and then lead into your response with an effective transition from an objective academic summary to an analytical response that is well supported with textual examples.
Sep 06, · How to Write a Summary of an Article.
Updated on August 15, Virginia Kearney. more. Virginia has been a university English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. In a business or science report, you can use bullets in a summary; however, in most academic subjects, it would not Reviews: