The Rise of the Mongols, — A. Nomadism in Central and Inner Asia 1.
One of the long held beliefs that both defenders and detractors of the Mongol Empire have shared is that Chinggis Khan r. Though the so-called Pax Mongolica has often been overstated and the idea of a vast Eurasian common market remained as illusionary as the tales of dog-headed men, the achievements of the Toluids as the ruling dynasties of Yuan China and Ilkhanid Iran became known, in creating a united cultural, political, and mercantile polity should not be lightly dismissed.
In Hulegu Khan, grandson of Chinggis Khan, ended years of Arab inspired fragmentation and allowed the re-birth of the Iranian nation when he founded the Perso-Mongol Ilkhanate [ Though the political unity attempted by the Toluid regimes of Iran and China was far from perfect it remained a goal and both the Silk Road through Turkestan and the Spice Route via the Indian Ocean allowed trade to develop and saw cultural exchange thrive.
However despite the political turmoil which exemplified relations between the other Chinggisid states in the north dominated by the Golden Horde in the West and Qaidu Page 1 of 11 Mongol Globalisation Khan with his sometime Chaghadaid allies in Central Asia, commerce still found a way along the Eurasia trade routes and those contacts, first established during the early decades of Chinggisid expansion, continued to grow and diversify.
Though political unity remained elusive, the Chinggisids established enduring trade links and these Eurasian commercial operations provided a fragile but operative mercantile unity. The genius of Chinggis Khan was not solely expressed in his deft political insight and clever manipulation of events and people but in his development of a system of governance which allowed for the smooth transition of power and a sense of inclusiveness to which so many diverse peoples could subscribe.
The dynamic of his revolution was inclusive and inspirational and offered rewards and aspirations to all who would subscribe to its ideals. When Chinggis Khan first emerged from the Eurasian steppe, the world of the sown Genghis kahns great conquest essay and recoiled in primordial Genghis kahns great conquest essay of their archetypal enemy, the steppe.
But Chinggis Khan was able to reconcile those arch enemies, the Steppe and the Sown, and his empire sought a union of the two opposites. The Song Emperors of southern China had already lent their strategic help to the Chinggisids in the past when their interests had been served though now they were no doubt regretting their generosity but others were more genuine in their offers of allegiance and loyalty.
From the northern Iranian city of Qazvin a delegation of notables and merchants led by a well-regarded Muslim cleric arrived seeking an audience with the great khan whom they remembered fondly when he and his brothers had been tutored by scholars from their city and they hoped now was an opportune time to capitalise on those connections.
The great Chinggisid Empire was growing relentlessly while Iran stagnated as a forgotten peripheral state ignored by the great and ruled by Baiju Noyan, an incompetent minor military officer.
The delegation from Qazvin implored Mongke to rescue them and to turn his attention to their plight. They wished him to appoint a royal prince to their province and to allow Iran to become a fully functioning part of the empire.
The skeleton of this tale is widely reported and the colourful details are provided by Hamdallah Mustawfi d. For Juwayni there were three Page 4 of 11 Mongol Globalisation consequences arising from the Mongol conquests which justified all the destruction and hardship.
For six hundred years following the Arab invasion of Iran, the Persian heartlands had been referred to by their provincial names such as Khorasan, Azerbaijan, Seistan, and Jabil, but as Hulegu crossed the Oxus the nation of a united Iran was reborn and the Arab yoke was finally discarded.
Despite later propaganda most of the many thousands killed during the conquest of the city died from pestilence. With the establishment of the Ilkhanate initially in Maragha, a small city kms south of Tabriz, Iran underwent a cultural and spiritual renaissance and the Chinggisids were gradually acculturalised and absorbed into the greater Iranian polity.
Though members of the royal family maintained the prestige of birth and leading Mongol amirs and khans preserved their ascendancy, ethnicity ceased to determine social status or political or social power.
There had been a consensus of leading Persian clerics, thinkers, landowners and administrators who had welcomed Hulegu and had actively cooperated in the establishment of the Ilkhanate. Their gamble had proved a success when Ghazan Khan r.
Ghazan declared himself king of all Iranians, Turk and Tajik alike and urged his Mongol nobles to end the practice of exploitation of their Persian neighbours.
Ties with Khanbaliq and the Yuan regime remained strong though disputes continued to define relations with the other Mongol states. Iran enjoyed a golden age of poetry and miniature painting and its capital, Tabriz, became a gateway for the Arab world, the Mediterranean and Europe to the Orient.
Hulegu had established an observatory and seat of learning for one of his closest advisers, Nasir al-Din Tusi and the world renowned scientist and thinker attracted scholars from all over the world to his academy and well-stocked libraries which had benefited from the fall of both Baghdad and Alamut.
The solid political ties between the Ilkhanate and the Yuan ensured that there was constant travel between east and west and Persians in particular streamed east to seek their fortunes and for adventure.
Small communities of Persians appeared throughout China and in cities such as Hangzhou and Quanzhou evidence suggests that the Persian merchants were both popular and influential. Qubilai had requested Persian military engineers to assist him in the border disturbances in the west and often he would reward these experts with land or official positions within China.
The Chinese influence on Persian art of the time is particularly striking. Trade flourished and Chinese ceramics became especially sought after.
The Ilkhanate of Iran and the Yuan of China continued their close political, cultural and commercial alliance but relations with the other Chingisid khanates remained at best strained and often broke into open warfare.
As relations soured from the mids onward so diplomatic traffic ceased to use the old Silk Road and other more obscure routes were employed through Kashmir and the Pamirs. The manual is a practical guide to conducting trade throughout Eurasia and it lists tariffs, border formalities, guide prices, the prices and availability of goods and other such very practical advice for would be merchants seeking trading opportunities in the east.
The longer sea routes were also utilised and the Persian Gulf opened up Yuan markets to the Arab world as well as Iran.
The Spice Route traversing the southern seas and the Indian Ocean was also not without considerable risks and many fleets fell victim to pirates or the weather as well as treacherous currents and dangerous swells.
When Marco Polo returned to Europe from China in the return journey to Hormuz in the Persian Gulf took two years and of the people excluding crew who originally embarked on the perilous voyage in Quanzhou only 18 arrived in southern Iran.
To return to the original question, the answer must be positive but with certain qualifications. After the divisive civil war of the early s, Eurasia was once again politically fragmented and wars and border disputes once again became common.
However, trade always finds a way and because merchants are always willing to pay taxes, and tariffs and are happy to employ local guides and armed guards they are generally welcomed as good for local economies. It is in this way that the Mongols opened up the passage from east to west and commercially united the markets of Eurasia, Page 8 of 11 Mongol Globalisation Allsen, Thomas.
Culture and Conquest in Mongol Eurasia.Watch video · Genghis Khan was buried without markings, according to the customs of his tribe, somewhere near his birthplace—close to the Onon River and the Khentii Mountains in northern Mongolia.
Comparison of Alexander the Great & Genghis Khan By:Lauren Miller Period:4 King of Macedonia through ( BC) Inherited his fathers army Responsible for the spread of Greek civilization in the Mediterranean & W. Asia. May 07, · Genghis Khan (Photo credit: Wikipedia) On one end of the leadership spectrum, there is Machiavelli–conniving, ambitious and ruthless.
On the other there is Cyrus the Great. The Art of War under Chinggis Qahan (Genghis Khan) Translated by Urgunge Onon. The Secret History of the Mongols: The Life and Times of Chinggis Khan, translated by Urgunge Onon (Curzon Press, ).
In the thirteenth century, all Mongols thought themselves to be the centre of the universe, a belief that they derived from their Shamanistic religion. The Mongols under Genghis Khan and his successors ruled Eurasia from China to the Middle East and Russia. This is the largest empire in history.
Genghis divided his empire among his four children, while investing one of them with supreme paramountship. Ögedei Khan had granted permission to invade the remainder of Europe, all the way to the "Great Sea", the Atlantic Ocean; his death prevented the invasions from continuing west, as Batu withdrew to participate in the election of a successor.