The report assesses whether and how the social attitudes of young people in the UK today differ from previous generations, and how they might evolve in the future. Based on a comprehensive review of the social science research, and a handful of focus groups with 41 young people, the report shows how peers, school, community and — hugely important — parents, together influence and mutually reinforce the social attitudes and aspirations of children and young people: Those from disadvantaged backgrounds express lower aspirations and expectations to succeed. The relationship with parents is a key predictor of wellbeing.
One answer is that they are modelling the behaviour of their own parents, having learned how to parent in the course of being parented. Yet another major determinant of their behaviour lies in their general attitudes as well as specific beliefs, thoughts, and feelings that are activated during parenting: Subject Child-rearing attitudes are cognitions that predispose an individual to act either positively or negatively toward a child.
Attitudes most frequently considered involve the degree of warmth and acceptance or coldness and rejection that exists in the parent-child relationship, as well as the extent to which parents are permissive or restrictive in the limits they set for their offspring. Researchers have also studied more situation-specific thoughts or schemas — filters through which parents interpret and react to events, particularly ambiguous ones.
These include cognitions such as beliefs about parenting abilities, expectations about what children are capable of or should be expected to do, and reasons why children have behaved in a particular way. Problems The influence of attitudes on parenting behaviours has been a favourite topic of investigation, with research suggesting that linkages are generally of a modest nature.
For example, parents might endorse or value being warm and responsive to children, but have difficulty expressing those feelings when their child is misbehaving.
As a result of this realization the study of parent cognitions has been widened to include more specific ways of thinking. Research Context The study of parent attitudes, belief systems, and thinking has taken place along with changing conceptions of child-rearing. These changes have emphasized the bidirectional nature of interactions, with children influencing parents as well as parents influencing children.
Key Research Questions Which parental attitudes result in the best child outcomes? Recent Research Results A large body of research on attitudes indicates that parental warmth together with reasonable levels of control combine to produce positive child outcomes.
Although not strong, as noted above, the results are consistent. Researchers have noted that what is seen to be a reasonable level of control varies as a function of sociocultural context. As an example, parents look for reasons why both they and their children act the way the do.
These attributions can make parenting more efficient when they are accurate. These negative feelings distract parents from the task of parenting, and make it more difficult for them to react appropriately and effectively to the challenges of socialization. For example, Bugental and colleagues have studied mothers who believe their children have more power than they do in situations where events are not going well.
They send confusing messages to their children, with the result that children stop paying attention to them as well as showing a decrease in cognitive ability. Similarly, mothers of infants who are low in self-efficacy, that is, do not believe they can parent effectively, give up on parenting when the task is challenging and become depressed.
They are cold and disengaged in interactions with their babies. Mothers report higher endorsement of progressive parenting attitudes, encouraging their children to think and verbalize their own ideas and opinions, whereas fathers endorse a more authoritarian approach. Conclusions The study of parent cognitions, beliefs, thoughts, and feelings can expand our knowledge of child development.
Child-rearing cognitions influence parents to act either positively or negatively towards their children. These beliefs have been considered good predictors of parenting behaviour because they indicate the emotional climate in which children and parents operate and the health of the relationship.
When the thoughts are benign, they direct positive actions.influences parents' knowledge, beliefs, values, and goals about childrearing, so that a variety of parental behaviors are indirectly related to children's school performance.
effective influences children have in their lives occurs from their parents. The parents of a child can have both a positive and a negative influence on their lives. In this novel there are two very good examples of how parents can be an important influence on their children.
As many as one in ten African American students has an incarcerated parent.
One in four has a parent who is or has been incarcerated. The discriminatory incarceration of African American parents is an important cause of their children’s lowered performance, especially in schools where the trauma. Introduction.
Becoming a parent, at any age, can be a life-altering experience. Regardless of race, education, and socio-economic status, motherhood—and fatherhood—uniformly places demands on one’s life that were non-existent prior to the birth of a child. To Kill a Mockingbird: the Influences Parents Have on Their Children.
boundaries. One of the major influences children have in their lives comes from their parents. The parents of a child can have both a positive and a negative influence on their lives. The Positive & Negative Influences of Parents on Their Children. by KAY IRELAND April 23, PsychCentral contributor Richard O'Connor notes that depression often has a cyclical pattern between parents and children, proving that children simply act how they've learned is .